Overall Detail For Pregnancy | Maternal and Infant Health 2023

Overall Detail For Pregnancy | Maternal and Infant Health 2023

Pregnancy is the period during which a fetus develops inside the uterus or abdomen of a female. Pregnancy typically lasts approximately 40 weeks, or just over 9 months, from the last menstrual period to the time of delivery. Medical professionals refer to the three stages of pregnancy as trimesters.

What is the first trimester of pregnancy?

There are three trimesters or phases of pregnancy. Each trimester lasts approximately 13 weeks, or three months. A full-term pregnancy lasts between nine and ten months, or 40 weeks. Your healthcare provider will discuss the maturation of the fetus in terms of weeks. The duration of the first trimester of pregnancy is thirteen weeks.

The first day of your last menstrual period actually marks the beginning of your pregnancy. This is known as the gestational period of the fetus. The date of your due date is calculated by adding 40 weeks to the first day of your last menstrual period. Therefore, by the time a woman realizes she is expecting, she is approximately four weeks along. This can be quite perplexing!

Understanding weeks of pregnancy

The first week of pregnancy is your period, followed by ovulation in the second week. After ovulation, the egg travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus. If it combines with sperm, it results in fertilization and pregnancy (conception).

The fertilized embryo travels to the uterus during the third week of pregnancy. On its way to the uterus, it divides into additional cells. Once it reaches the uterus, the virus implants itself within the uterine lining. This causes your body to recognize that you are expectant and initiate a series of changes. Most women who miss their period then test positive for pregnancy.

What can I expect in my first trimester?

The first trimester of pregnancy is marked by numerous physical and psychological alterations. It can be a very overwhelming time, and you may be filled with numerous concerns. In addition, your hormones are in hyperdrive. During pregnancy, your body produces more estrogen than it does throughout your entire existence when you are not pregnant. This hormonal surge can result in some disagreeable pregnancy symptoms. You may feel irritable, distended, and exhausted. While you may not yet have a noticeable pregnancy bump, your uterus and blood volume are expanding.

It is acceptable to feel both exhilarated and anxious. As you navigate your pregnancy, talking to your peers, partner, or healthcare provider may help you feel better.

Why is the first trimester of pregnancy so critical?

The significance of the first trimester lies in the development of the majority of the fetus’ main organs and body systems. During this time, toxins, harmful substances, and infections can severely impair a fetus’ growth and development. It may increase the likelihood that your infant will be born with a congenital disorder.

What Are The Most Common Symptoms During The First Trimester?

  • Hormones may cause your breasts to feel hypersensitive and enlarged.
  • It is common to require larger bras by the conclusion of the first trimester. Your breast veins may become more prominent as they transport more blood.
  • Alterations to your breasts may also include darkened areolas and altered nipples.
  • Morning nausea is one of the earliest indicators of pregnancy. Despite its moniker, it can last throughout the day and night.
  • Consider consuming smaller portions or bland, low-fat foods. Some individuals find respite from ginger-containing foods.
  • The abrupt surge of hormones may cause you to experience a roller coaster of emotions.
  • Within a span of 30 minutes, you may experience anxiety, fear, and elation, followed by sadness.
  • It may be beneficial to discuss your emotions with a close friend or companion.
  • Your body is working diligently during the first trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fatigue.
  • This may leave you feeling extremely exhausted. Be sure to get sufficient slumber. In the second trimester, the majority of individuals regain vitality.
  • Your uterus begins to expand to support the pregnancy, causing the need to urinate. It may begin to exert pressure on your bladder, causing you to urinate more frequently.
  • During pregnancy, hormones cause your skin to produce more sebum, which can lead to acne and other skin changes.
  • Some individuals may develop congested pores and acne as a result. There are additional skin conditions that manifest during pregnancy, but the vast majority present during the second or third trimester.
  • You may experience mild shortness of breath during minor physical activity.

Overall Detail For Pregnancy | Maternal and Infant Health 2023

What Should I Not Do In The First Trimester Of Pregnancy?

  • Alcoholic beverages.
  • Cigarettes and tobacco products.
  • Substances of recreational use, such as opioids.
  • Contact sports, such as football, and abdominal-pressing activities can cause abdominal strain.
  • Foods such as raw fish (sushi), mercury-rich fish, raw or undercooked meats, lunchmeat, and unpasteurized milk, cheese, or juice.
  • saunas and spa baths.

Is it typical for pregnant women to bleed during the first trimester?

During the first few weeks of pregnancy, light blood or spotting is typically acceptable. Some individuals experience implantation hemorrhage, which occurs when a fertilized egg implants into the uterine lining. Call your pregnancy care provider if you are experiencing heavy bleeding or if the bleeding persists for more than 24 hours.

Can I Drink Caffeine During Pregnancy?

Most medical professionals advise pregnant women to consume less than 200 milligrams of caffeine per day. That is equivalent to approximately 12 ounces of coffee or three cans of Mtn Dew®. This is due to the fact that a neonate cannot metabolize caffeine, causing it to accumulate and cause complications.

When Should I Call My Pregnancy Care Provider During The First Trimester?

  • A temperature above 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Heavy menstruation or an abnormal vaginal discharge.
  • Extreme abdominal, arm, or leg cramps or abdominal discomfort.
  • Constant vomiting or diarrhea.
  • Fainting symptoms and vertigo.
  • Inflammation of the hands, fingertips, or face.
  • Vision impairment or blotches before the eyes.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Pregnancy may be scary and exciting. Information overload and many inquiries may result. Your body grows and changes dramatically in the first trimester. The fetus develops too. The fetus is lemon-sized by the first trimester. You may have pregnant symptoms include nausea, aching breasts, and frequent urination. As soon as you realize you’re pregnant, see a doctor. To stay healthy and strong during pregnancy, you need regular prenatal care.

Postural Changes

  • Pregnancy changes spine and pelvic balance[5].
  • With weight gain, increased blood volume, and foetal ventral expansion, the specific nature of any linked postural adaptation is yet unclear.
  • The center of gravity shifts posteriorly from the feet. Anteroposterior and medial-lateral sway increase[6], forcing women to lean rearward to balance, disorganizing spinal curvature.
  • Reduced lumbar lordosis, increased lumbar and thoracic kyphosis, or flattening of the thoracolumbar spinal curve are reported postures.
  • Compensatory posture alterations in the thoracic and cervical spines, combined with the increased weight of the breasts, may cause posterior shoulder displacement, anterior pelvic tilting, and cervical lordosis.[7]
  • For 8 weeks following delivery, these alterations may persist.

Nervous System

  • Fluid retention can compress nerves in tiny canals like the carpal tunnel, causing hand pain, numbness, and weakness.
  • During pregnancy, anxiety, mood swings, vivid nightmares, and insomnia are common, although the cause is unknown[9].

Gastrointestinal changes

  • LES tone and GI motility decrease with progesterone-induced smooth muscle relaxation.
  • The rise in intra-gastric pressure and reduction in LES tone cause pregnancy-related gastro-oesophageal reflux.
  • One of the most frequent pregnant GI symptoms is nausea and vomiting, or “morning sickness”. It starts between 4 and 8 weeks of pregnancy and normally fades by 14–16 weeks.
  • Nausea is caused by an increase in human chorionic gonadotropin, progesterone, and stomach smooth muscle relaxation [13].
  • Pregnancy may cause constipation and hemorrhoids due to smooth muscle relaxation, reduced stool motility, and increased colon water absorption.

Pain Management

  • Labor and Vaginal Birth Without Drugs
  • The Birth Center rooms include space to roam, tubs for soaking, rocking rockers, and convertible beds for labor comfort.
  • Many find relief through relaxation, breathing, family, friends, and medical assistance.
  • UCSF’s Great Expectations Pregnancy Program offers workshops, publications, and videos on comfort measures.
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