Premenstrual Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, And Management

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common condition that affects many women in their reproductive years. It refers to a combination of physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms that occur in the days or weeks before menstruation.

While PMS is a normal part of a woman’s menstrual cycle, its impact on daily life can vary from mild to severe. In this article, we will explore what premenstrual syndrome is, its symptoms, and the possible causes behind its occurrence.

What is Premenstrual Syndrome?

Premenstrual syndrome, commonly known as PMS, refers to a cluster of symptoms that occur in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. It typically begins after ovulation and resolves with the onset of menstruation. The exact cause of PMS is still unknown, but hormonal changes, neurotransmitter fluctuations, and certain lifestyle factors are believed to play a role.

Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome:

PMS can manifest in a wide range of physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms. The severity and combination of symptoms can vary greatly between individuals. Common physical symptoms include bloating, breast tenderness, fatigue, headaches, and changes in appetite.

Emotional and psychological symptoms may include mood swings, irritability, anxiety, depression, difficulty concentrating, and sleep disturbances. These symptoms can significantly impact a woman’s quality of life and interpersonal relationships.

Causes of Premenstrual Syndrome:

While the exact causes of PMS are not fully understood, several factors are believed to contribute to its development. Hormonal fluctuations are thought to be a primary factor, particularly changes in estrogen and progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle.

These hormonal shifts can influence neurotransmitters like serotonin, which plays a role in mood regulation. Low serotonin levels have been associated with PMS symptoms such as mood swings and depression.

In addition to hormonal factors, lifestyle, and environmental factors may also contribute to the development and severity of PMS symptoms.

Poor nutrition, high levels of stress, lack of exercise, and inadequate sleep can exacerbate the symptoms of PMS. Certain women may also have a higher predisposition to PMS due to genetic and familial factors.

Managing Premenstrual Syndrome:

The management of PMS involves a multifaceted approach tailored to an individual’s specific symptoms and needs. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a balanced diet, and stress reduction techniques, can help alleviate symptoms. Avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and excessive salt intake may also have a positive impact.

For women with severe symptoms that significantly affect their daily life, medical intervention may be necessary. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help relieve physical symptoms such as bloating and breast tenderness.

Hormonal birth control methods, such as oral contraceptives or hormonal patches, can regulate hormonal fluctuations and alleviate symptoms for some women.

In cases where symptoms of PMS are severe and interfere with daily functioning, healthcare professionals may consider diagnosing premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

PMDD is a more severe form of PMS characterized by intense mood swings, depression, and anxiety. Treatment options for PMDD may include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and therapy.

Risk Factors For Premenstrual Syndrome:

  • Hormonal Imbalance: Fluctuations in hormone levels, particularly estrogen and progesterone, play a significant role in PMS. The exact interplay between hormones and PMS symptoms is complex and varies from person to person.
  • Genetic Predisposition: Research suggests that genetics may contribute to an increased susceptibility to PMS. Having a family history of PMS or mood disorders can elevate the risk.
  • Chemical and Neurotransmitter Changes: Alterations in brain chemicals, such as serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), have been associated with PMS. These changes can impact mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.
  • Lifestyle Factors: Certain lifestyle factors, including poor diet, high-stress levels, lack of exercise, and inadequate sleep, may exacerbate PMS symptoms. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle can help mitigate the severity of symptoms.

Diagnosis Of Premenstrual Syndrome:

Diagnosing PMS involves a comprehensive evaluation of symptoms and their relationship to the menstrual cycle.

The following steps are typically involved:

  • Symptom Tracking: Keeping a menstrual diary can help identify patterns and establish a correlation between symptoms and the menstrual cycle.
  • Medical History and Physical Examination: Your healthcare provider will review your medical history and conduct a physical examination to rule out other potential causes of your symptoms.
  • Diagnostic Criteria: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has established specific diagnostic criteria that encompass the timing, duration, and severity of symptoms.

Treatment Of Premenstrual Syndrome:

  • Lifestyle Modifications: Adopting a healthy lifestyle can alleviate PMS symptoms. Regular exercise, a balanced diet rich in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, stress reduction techniques (such as yoga and meditation), and adequate sleep can help manage symptoms.
  • Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers (e.g., ibuprofen) can help alleviate physical discomfort. In severe cases, hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, may be prescribed to regulate hormone levels.
  • Alternative Therapies: Some individuals find relief through alternative therapies like acupuncture, herbal supplements, or dietary changes. It is important to discuss these options with a healthcare provider before trying them.

Coping with Premenstrual Syndrome:

  • Self-Care Practices: Engaging in self-care activities such as taking warm baths, practicing relaxation techniques, engaging in hobbies, and spending time with loved ones can improve emotional well-being during PMS.
  • Social Support: Seek support from friends, family, or support groups who can provide understanding, empathy, and a safe space to express your feelings.
  • Stress Management: Implement stress-reducing techniques like deep breathing exercises, mindfulness, or engaging in activities that bring joy and relaxation.
  • Professional Help: If PMS symptoms significantly impact your daily life or mental health, consider reaching out to a mental health professional for counseling or therapy.


Premenstrual syndrome is a common condition that affects many women worldwide. While the exact causes are not fully understood, hormonal fluctuations, neurotransmitter imbalances, and lifestyle factors are believed to play a role.

Understanding the symptoms and causes of PMS is essential for women to seek appropriate management strategies. By making lifestyle modifications, seeking medical intervention when necessary, and maintaining open communication with healthcare professionals, women can effectively manage and reduce the impact of premenstrual syndrome on their lives.

Scroll to Top